An article by Ronika Postaria
Stairs are not meant for Moms with kids in strollers!
Photo by Marian Carrasquero/The New York Times
'Women and City' is a popular phrase, and yet our city designs, at present, are discordant with what women want. On the one hand, our cities have progressed regarding human rights and equality with several policies, campaigns, and initiatives for bridging the gender gap in education, jobs, and wages. On the other hand, a massive misalignment exists in our city design across the diverse spectrum of gender-and-age-based needs, including but not limited to males, females, and the LGBTQIA+ community. Our cities are still "gender blind" when it comes to the urban realm's basic planning and design.
The urban planning and design ideation may have transitioned from “planners know the best” to ‘focus and integrate the community's desires and ideas’; the attempts to serve everyone in the neighbourhood continue to place women's demands in the greys. The female voice at the table and their lifestyles' needs often go unnoticed. Although urban designers hear the points pitched at public consultations, it is imperative to balance the number of females attending these discussions compared to their male counterparts. Further, the participatory nature of such gatherings—if women's experiences and activities were considered or counter-argued by members of the same community, especially the males – should be studied. We still design our cities prominently for the ‘neutral-male-user’ with a few rare considerations for other genders.
How are our cities "gender-blind"?
Two of the most discussed topics concerning gender inclusivity in city design are public spaces and mobility. Some may argue in favour of the efforts put into making public areas and transportation safer for women. However, we need to understand that safety is just one element of a more significant problem. Areas being 'gender-blind' relate to the design and the assumed use of the space itself. Initiatives like women's compartments and travel cards are merely a way to increase public transportation use and do not guarantee the required gender-specific flexibility.
Further, it only serves one portion of women who have direct single-journey commutes. Several women, including domestic workers, working moms and others, need to make multiple stops between home and work for different things – dropping children at school, buying groceries or medicines, or running an errand, and must compromise in many ways. Besides, accessing public transit stops is an added chore if not within walking distance. Considering these journeys as commonplace as work trips while designing the city transportation plans is essential. Despite women being reported to use personal vehicles lesser than men, plan multiple trips, and pay more, such multi-stop trips do not catch enough attention in our city design masterplans since the same journeys by men rely on cars.
Primary public consultations or community-involvement-based projects rely on gathered data; however, these datasets are often disaggregated. First, women's access to these consultations or survey matters is likely to be lesser than men's. Second, the number of women present is not directly proportional to the broad spectrum of activity and age-based demands of the same gender – educated, working women are more likely to attend public meetings than uneducated, belonging to low-income households or engaged in daily-wage jobs, the needs of whom, again, vary enormously. The absence of proper, usable public toilets for women; inadequate street lighting on most roads; accessibility to healthcare, child-care, women-centre, etc., are only a few issues in the long list of gender-specific needs our city plans fail to consider.
Image: Gender Inclusivity matters at every step of decision-making in cities. Image source: World Bank Handbook for Gender-Inclusive Urban Planning and Design
Gender-Inclusive city planning
Access; Mobility; Safety from violence; Health and hygiene; Climate Resilience; and Security of Tenure are six major issues in the built environment, as listed by the World Bank under the 'Handbook for Gender-Inclusive Urban Planning and Design, that combine with gender inequality of all ages and abilities.
'Gender-mainstreaming' is a concept that often interlinks with political and social issues when discussing gender inclusivity. Understanding such interconnected individual elements that come together differently to give varying meanings to our environment is imperative. In this article, the focus is entirely on the design elements.
Needless to say, safety for women in public transportation, public spaces, and any space for that matter is deeply rooted in the issue of sexual violence and the bigoted mentality of the patriarchal society. While city planners cannot explicitly handle domestic issues, they can reduce inequality and gender discrimination in the public realm. While Climate resilience and Tenure security are factors associated with housing and policy-based planning practices, Access, Mobility, Safety from violence (up to a certain extent), and Health and hygiene are all areas where planners can intervene for the better.
Gender inclusivity in city planning goes beyond making public spaces or transportation safer for women. Such interventions should not be something special. It is needful and basic. Mobility significantly defines how women move around the city, which calls for community initiatives more than female compartments or travel cards. Safety is often not about the experience while on public transit alone but about accessing the service, which requires scrutiny for safer last-mile connectivity, the waiting time, location and shelter at the public transit stops. Similarly, inadequate lighting almost everywhere adds to women's safety, whether at public transit stops, parks and gardens, or moving on narrow alleys.
Making spaces for women
The first step towards gender-inclusive city design is acknowledging the difference in how men and women experience the city. Thus, the knowledge demands planners and practitioners to be aware of the need to gather robust data promising gender equity. The public and private realm separation mainly affects women's behaviour in transitioning spaces. Infrastructure thus plays a pivotal role. A few suggestions necessary to focus on the needs of women while they move around the city may include:
- prioritising the placement of women-specific building use in masterplans;
- creating smooth transitioning semi-public spaces;
- designing pedestrian routes with extra consideration for benches, streetlights, ramps for strollers and wheelchairs, wide pathways, and continuous connections.
The vibrancy and multi-purpose use of buildings to keep the space busy throughout the day and avoid dead areas is another important theme that can serve as a solution. However, only the multi-purpose facilities on the plans are not enough. For obvious reasons, the activities that happen and the type of crowd attracted to certain places affect women more than men.
Image: EU's efforts towards Gender Inclusivity in cities. Image source:: Gender-equal-cities_URBACT_EU
Additionally, the provision of hygienic sanitation facilities makes it easier for women - mothers or otherwise - to spend more time outdoors without worrying about finding the nearest shopping mall or visiting a coffee shop only to access the toilet. This matters especially for women from low-income households who cannot afford to visit such commercial spots and have no available sanitation facility in the public realm.
Gender equality should not be confused with treating women the same as men. We need to understand how women’s encounters in the city and places differ on different levels from men's. Sexual violence, child-care, and daycare jobs are more inclined towards women's involvement in most cities. In the same way, the dominant car user is male and walking, and public transport use is prominent amongst women – yet, they are safer for men than women.
Rather than spaces that work amazingly well for men and leave women hanging for their needs, designing for women requires specific elements. Our built environment shapes our lives and struggles in varying ways. Urban planning and city design have the unique opportunity to make small changes that bring considerable change at all levels in our cities.
Note: This article was originally published on Cities Forum website.